Style Guidelines

Introduction and Rationale

Academic journals require submitted articles and book reviews to adhere to style guidelines. These guidelines will usually specify document formatting, citation style, and the like. Journal style guidelines will be much more specific than what a professor would require for turning in a paper in a class. This specificity is necessary because publishing a journal requires consistency from page to page. Is it a pain? Yes. But when all submissions adhere to the style guidelines, it saves hours of work for journal staff. This is good news for you, the author, as well. Here’s why:

Formatting your submission properly will only help your work in the submission process. Formatting issues are a distraction for editors. You do not want an editor expressing frustration with your funky footnotes when they could be singing the praises of your prose. As a graduate student at the beginning of an academic career, you’ll already have to work hard to find readers for your work. Proper formatting and citations is an easy way to get editors to take you seriously as a scholar—it shows that you care about the journal you’re submitting to and read over their guidelines carefully. Following style guidelines is a bit like getting a haircut and ironing your shirt before going to a job interview. You want your submission to look its best.


Please submit your paper with endnotes formatted in Chicago full note. Please include 2-7 keywords after your abstract. In submitting final copy, it is essential to follow the guidelines below:

  • Headings: Do not put running heads on pages.
  • Margins: Do not justify the text; leave the right margin ragged. Insert hard returns only at the end of paragraphs or headings.
  • Spacing: Use only one space after a period or other punctuation. All texts should be double-spaced. Please format your submission with no spaces before or after paragraphs. Use a single tab to indent each paragraph. Do not use the space bar or style formatting for indenting.
  • Font: Use 12-pitch in a common font such as Palatino or Times.
  • Punctuation: In a series consisting of three or more elements, the elements are separated by commas: “In the market were lavish displays of fruits, cheeses, and artisan breads.” Commas and periods appear within quotation marks (see below) and precede endnote superscripts.
  • Quotation marks: Use double quotation marks for quoted material. Single quotation marks are used only for quotes within quotes. Commas and periods should appear within the quotation marks, while superscripts follow the end quotation marks: As Jamieson notes, “religious groups have long used food in their spiritual lives.” (n.b. British contributors: this format is the reverse of standard British practice). Semi-colons and colons that follow a quote remain outside the quotation marks.
  • Citations: Citations within the text should be double-spaced and set off by indenting two tab stops from the left-hand margin. (If the citation begins with a new paragraph, the first line should be indented three tab spots.) Do not use quotation marks on indented citations.
  • Italics: Titles of books, magazines, films, and published recipes (whether in books or on menus) should appear in italic font, rather than being underlined.
  • Spelling: Spelling should conform to standard American usage, i.e., “flavor” as opposed to “flavour;” “realize” instead of “realise;” “theater” not “theatre.” Abbreviations such as Mr. and St. (for Saint) are followed by periods. Refer to Webster’s Third International Dictionary.
  • Hyphenation: Do not manually hyphenate words, and turn off automatic hyphenation.
  • Numerals: Numerals under 100 should be spelled out, as should any of the whole numbers followed by “hundred,” “thousand,” “million,” etc.: thirty years ago; fifty-seven times; two hundred recipes.
  • Dates: Dates should appear as September 30, 1992. When referring to decades, use 1980s, with no apostrophe (on second mention, you may refer to “the ‘80s”). The names of centuries should be spelled out and a hyphen inserted in adjectival forms: the seventeenth century; seventeenth-century custom.
  • Dashes: Use a double hyphen for dashes, with no spaces surrounding them.

Illustrations or photographs

  • Authors are responsible for securing all permissions for images. Reference the University of Chicago Press’ guide about copyright for further information. Securing image permissions typically involves contacting rightsholders (archives, museums, etc.), filling out paperwork, and sometimes, paying a fee. Policies about permissions will vary between different rightsholders. Leave yourself plenty of time to complete this task.
  • All illustrations must be high resolution.
  • Please do not paste graphics (whether inline tables, charts, photographs, or drawings) into the manuscript. They must be created separately (i.e. not embedded in the Word document), and submitted as a separate file. Please give these separate images a readily identifiable name so that the layout editor can connect it to your last name (e.g. YOURLASTNAME—Line drawing apple.jpg not IMG_324.jpg or table.tif).
  • Clearly indicate where in the text these should be inserted, using the following formula, written in red in your manuscript (e.g “…which look much like an apple [insert SMITH—Line drawing apple.jpg about here].”)
  • All photographs should be converted to CMYK format, rather than RGB. If you do not know how to do this, please indicate that the images have not been converted by putting RGB at the end of the filename, e.g. YOURLASTNAME—Line drawing apple RGB.jpg.

Notes and References

  • Please do not put any endnotes or footnotes in your article’s title or abstract. Because endnotes contain all bibliographic information, no separate bibliography or works cited section is necessary. All notes must appear as consecutively numbered endnotes at the end of the article. Do not use Roman numeral or lettered superscripts. If you use Zotero or another citation generating software for endnotes, please save yourself a copy, then submit a copy of your work with the Zotero connections broken.
  • Acknowledgements should appear at the beginning of the notes.
  • Notes must be double-spaced and in regular 12-point font.
  • Notes should follow the Chicago Manual of Style format:

G.A. Jarrin, The Italian Confectioner (London: John Harding, 1820), 215-16.

Book with multiple authors:
Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker, Joy of Cooking (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975), 581.

Edited Text:
Alan Davidson, ed., The Oxford Companion to Food (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 762.

Translated text:
Pellegrino Artusi, The Art of Eating Well, trans. Kyle M. Phillips II (New York: Random House, 1996), 76-77.

Article in edited volume:
Michael Freeman, “Sung,” in K.C. Chang, Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977), 151.

Article in journal:
Edward Thompson, “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Past and Present 50 (1971): 76-136.

Lucy Long, “Culinary Tourism,” Southern Folklore 55, no. 3, 186. Article in Newspaper:

Philip Reiter, “Pigging Out,” The Boston Globe, 16 December 1966, 28.

Francille Maloch, “Characteristics of Most and Least Liked Household Tasks” (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1962), vi.

Internet citation:, 1999.

Ibid. refers to a work that has been cited in the previous note. It is not italicized.

If a previously cited work is referred to in a later note, use the author’s name and a short title. Do not use op. cit.: Davidson, Oxford Companion, 52.

Contributors’ Biography

With their work, all contributors should submit a brief biographical statement of no more than 75 words. This must be prose—absolutely no bullet points or CVs accepted.

Book Reviews

Book review text should follow the rules above, as well as the book review guidelines.

These guidelines are a modified version of those used by Gastronomica, are used with permission.